Architectural style and characteristics of Ming and Qing stage in Qingshuihe County

2015年05月02日 19:42:16
From 1995 to 1999, in cooperation with the construction of Wanjiazhai Yellow River Reservoir area, the county cultural management office, the Institute of Archaeology of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and the municipal cultural relics Office jointly investigated and surveyed the ancient stage temple sites on the East Bank of the Yellow River in the county. These sites are distributed along the great wall and the Yellow River Although it was eroded by wind and rain and destroyed by human beings in, its exquisite construction technology still emerged from the ruins. It is a typical representative of Qingshuihe County's ancient stage, and also a rare ancient building outside the Great Wall. It has been announced as an autonomous region level cultural relic protection unit. One was forced to be demolished at the edge of the reservoir area, one was relocated, and three were still in place. This paper introduces the architectural style and characteristics of the stage. If you are not careful, please correct it. The stage of Qingquan temple in Ming Dynasty in kouzishang Village (existing) is located on the gentle slope of the northern foot of Lamma Kok mountain in kouzishang village, Beibao Township, Qingshuihe County. The inner and outer great walls of Ming Dynasty meet here, with overlapping peaks, many beacon trees and verdant trees. The stage is located in the north and south, with its back to the deep ditch. It rises from the ground, and is magnificent against the Great Wall. Qingquan Temple stage was built in the Chongzhen period of Ming Dynasty (1628-1644). In 1885, the villagers under the jurisdiction of Wuyan Jingbao also raised money to rebuild the line. Because there was a Qingquan temple on the opposite side of the stage, which was demolished in the early years, it was called Qingquan Temple stage. It covers an area of 572 square meters, of which the construction area of the stage is 72 square meters, and the viewing platform is 500 square meters. The overall position is rectangular.

. It is 8 meters high, 8 meters wide and 7 meters deep. The platform foundation is 1.5 meters high, and the surface layer is built with hammered and chiseled stones and pointed with lime, neat and generous. The table is built with rubble, smooth and level. There are 6 gold pillars in the platform, and the base stone of the blue stone pillar is beautiful and firm. The screen behind the stage is divided into the front and back, the right is the entrance door, and the left is the entrance door. The upper part of the lattice fan is provided with a square hollow edge, and the lower part is provided with a solid skirt board for protection. The board is painted with flower, bird and animal patterns. Under the purlin of the front eaves of the stage, the two sides of the umbrella pillars are supported by animal shaped capitals. The ridge of the platform is made of carved brick with vertical eaves, and the top is covered with blue ridge tiles, which are distributed in an arc shape from top to bottom, forming a concave and ingenious platform top. This kind of architectural structure is more conducive to the audience's hearing and vision. The entrance of the platform is made up of small stone pillars and stone slabs, which are carved with flowers and plants. The stone pillars are carved with lion, cabbage and eight treasure lamps. The stone carving has rough lines and vivid images. It can be said that the magnificence comes out of craftsmanship and the simplicity comes out of craftsmanship. The construction style of the whole stage is natural, simple and integrated. It is the only Ming Dynasty stage preserved in Inner Mongolia autonomous region so far. The stage of Fulong temple in Qing Dynasty (existing)

. It is adjacent to cliff in the East, changjiachuan deep stream in the South and Ming Great Wall in the East, hills and sand ridges in the west, and shuimen gully in the back. Since ancient times, it has been called Fulong Temple because it is known as Fulong crouching tiger. It was built in 1881. The total construction area is 329.47 square meters, of which the stage area is 59.29 square meters and the temple area is 269.18 square meters. It is a hard mountain building, covering an area of 1845 square meters. The whole building is square.

. 3. Laoniuwan Qing Dynasty stage (demolished)
laoniuwan stage is located on the Bank of the Yellow River in the north of laoniuwanxia village, dantaizi Township, Qingshuihe County, adjacent to the Yellow River in the west, cliff in the East, gully rock in the south, a concave part of the broken wall, a burst of cloth straight down, spring shallow gushing, surrounded by ancient trees, and beautiful environment. Laoniuwan stage "was built in the second year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty (1852), and was repaired twice in the fourth year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (1878) and the thirtieth year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (1904)". The theater building area is 83.09 square meters, the temple building area is 77.52 square meters, and the total building area is 160.69 square meters.

. Vertical ridge construction square carved brick, top buckle tube tile, anxihu. The front eaves and purlins of the stage are decorated with carved flowers and animal shaped frame to replace wood, the capitals are decorated with lotus shaped cloud pattern and bucket arches, the lower side of the front eaves and the inner sides of the two eaves columns are decorated with water caltrops, and the two sides of the middle eaves are decorated with Skylark and sparrow. On the inside of the back pillar, there are four diagonal floor to ceiling windows as the screen. On the outside of the back pillar and the gable, there are Tian zigzag floor to ceiling windows as the screen. The top partition board of the floor to ceiling windows, the bottom solid skirt board and the painted figures, landscapes, flowers and other patterns on both sides of the wall. An arched window is built on the backstage wall of the stage to provide ventilation and lighting. It is 1 meter high from the backstage wall corner to deal with the stone trough for external defecation. The front eaves of laoniuwan stage are carved with Yunlong flower teeth, the lotus base on the stigma is carved with cloud pattern, and the bucket arch is paved. The inner eaves are carved with water chestnut teeth and the inner hall screen frame. The carving and decoration art is particularly exquisite and exquisite. It is also vivid after several hundred years. It is the most representative and valuable ancient stage in the Qing Dynasty along the Yellow River. 4. Liuqinghe stage in Qing Dynasty (relocated)

liuqinghe stage is located in liuqinghe village, YAOGOU Township, Qingshuihe County. It is adjacent to the Yellow River in the west, mountains in the north, and Liuqing River Ditch in the East. A wooden stone arch bridge is erected on the river ditch, connecting the two temples in the East and the West. The River Ditch spring flows southward, and the willow fruit and apricot trees are luxuriant around it. The scenery is pleasant. Liuqinghe stage was built in 1737, the second year of Emperor Qianlong's reign in Qing Dynasty, and continued to be built in 1750. It covers an area of 1940 square meters, the theater building area is 85.38 square meters, and the temple building area is 120 square meters. It is a square courtyard.
the architectural style of liuqinghe stage is different from the above stage. First, the front eaves of the stage are equipped with wide octagonal shadow walls on both sides. The shadow walls are decorated with carved square bricks on the vertical ridges. On both sides, tubular tiles are buckled and animals are kissed. The base of the screen wall is built with xumizuo, the two sides of the wall are built with square bricks, and the inner square brick wall core is carved with a high floating brick carving pattern. On the left wall, male and female deer are used as foraging and jumping posture, with red sun and auspicious clouds above. On the right wall, there are two male and female chickens. The male chicken pecks the fairy grass to make a crowing posture. The upper part is lined with clouds, the morning wind, the cirrus and the moon. Screen wall relief is ingenious in conception, unique in design, exquisite and beautiful in carving technique, and vivid in image. Second, a railing is set at the entrance of the stage, so that the stage can be isolated from the periphery. A stone guardrail is built at the entrance of the front eaves of the stage, the top plane of the guardrail is grooved, and the two sides of the four gold pillars under the eaves of the stage are tenon buckles, which can be installed with isolation protection board. The advantage of this design is that the protective isolation board can be opened during the performance. After the performance, the protective isolation board can be installed and sealed. One is for the beautiful decoration of the stage, the other is for fire prevention, anti-theft and preventing wind and rain from eroding the stage. 5. Yushuwan Qing Dynasty stage (existing)

Yushuwan stage is located on the Bank of the Yellow River in dayushuwan village, Lamawan Town, Qingshuihe County, adjacent to the Yellow River in the West and surrounded by mountains in the East. The stage was built in June 1871. It covers an area of 792 square meters, with 97.02 square meters of stage building area and 93 square meters of temple building, which is a rectangular courtyard. Compared with other stage buildings, the purlin beams and columns of Yushuwan stage are made of thick and standard materials, and most of them are made of pine and cypress, while other stages are made of local elm. The architectural style is that there is an arched door in the middle of the back wall of the stage, two wooden doors are installed inside, the upper sill frame is decorated with arc-shaped inclined window sash, and seven steps are built outside the stage. The entrance is set at the back of the stage for the performers to enter and leave the stage without affecting the taste of the audience. Second, the ancient stage with unique architectural structure. The Chinese nation has a 5000 year history of civilization and splendid cultural and artistic treasures. As early as seven or eight thousand years ago, there were independent ground buildings in China. Ancient Chinese buildings have been developing and improving along its own track, forming a unique national style and characteristics, which are obviously reflected in the existing stage of Qingshui River. First, it is characterized by "the walls fall down and the house does not collapse". The history of Chinese ancient wooden structure can be traced back to thousands of years ago. It usually adopts the way of lifting beam or crossing bucket, as well as dense beam flat top structure and well flat structure. The ancient stage of Ming and Qing Dynasties along the Yellow River and the Great Wall mainly adopts the method of lifting beam structure, which is characterized by erecting beams on the columns, placing short columns on the beams, lifting beams on them, and bearing purlins at both ends of the beams, forming a rising beam frame layer by layer. This kind of construction method is to make the interior with few columns or no columns, so as to obtain larger utilization space. The mortise tenon joint frame structure is used between beams, columns and other components, which makes the whole frame have good integrity and flexibility, and can withstand the impact of strong horizontal external forces such as earthquake and wind. When the wall falls, but the supporting frame does not fall, so the wall falls and the house does not fall. Later, it was confirmed in the demolition of laoniuwan and liuqinghe stage. There are many pine and cypress straight beams on the wooden frame of dayushuwan stage, while the beams of other stages are made of local materials, mainly of local elm. The craftsman's design is exquisite, and the materials are used according to the bending situation, so that the purlin, beam, column and column of the stage are reasonably stressed, forming a unique style of ancient stage design along the Yellow River in the north. The second is to make use of the characteristics of Dou Gong and que ti. Dougong and queti are unique components of Chinese architecture. Dougong has become a measure of the height of the building, marking the important characteristics of ancient architecture. The function of the bucket arch is to increase the load force of the beam under the beam under the same clear span, and to make the eaves farther under the eaves. Dougong is composed of many different shapes of components, which can be single-layer or multi-layer. However, in order to emphasize the decorative role of Dougong, such as gatehouse and archway, it can be up to four or five floors or more. After the Qing Dynasty, Dougong became more decorative. Quedi was used in late Ming Dynasty, and it was widely used in Qing Dynasty. It became a very decorative component. The construction method of Ming and Qing ancient stage in Fuxian county is fully conducive to the Dou Gong and que Ti, the kouzi Village stage, the rafters of Yushuwan stage flying out of the eaves, the animal shape and carved wood between purlins and braces of laoniuwan stage, the rhomboid horned teeth and the large-scale through carved Yunlong flower tooth que ti on the lower side of purlins, the lotus leaf frame under the purlins of the front eaves of Yushuwan stage, and the pattern of sitting bucket on the stigma The connection between beams and columns and the problem of eaves, but also greatly enriched the decorative effect of the column head and beam, Fang, purlin and other parts, so that the ancient stage building structure is more reasonable, and the appearance is more magnificent. The third is the characteristics of high platform foundation and large roof. The facade of ancient Chinese architecture is mainly composed of three parts: platform, body and roof. In the early days, houses were only cave dwelling, semi cave dwelling or nest dwelling, without a platform. by