The last boatman

2015年07月27日 10:24:26


  the Yellow River is a nine bend river, and it's gone like this. Time has left images of the past -- the sound of boatman's chants, the sweat of dripping, the naked ochre face, the cold and hot weather, the smoke of stopping the ship for cooking, the joy of getting up and going home It forms a magnificent picture of river and road life. I have the honor to interview several elderly people to listen to their river life and feel the hard experience and strong, optimistic feelings of the older generation of boatman. Shipan village of Honghe town is a large village located on the East Bank of the Yellow River, with the largest population of more than 400 people. After liberation, there were more than 30 River Road workers who worked on river roads all the year round. The living old people Tian zhanchang and Tian changsuo are more than 80 years old. They tell us the life of the last group of river road workers with their own experience.
I don't know when the ancestors here have lived the river life of making a living by carrying boats and fishing. In 1938, before liberation, the Japanese came. Since then, the river has been closed from east to west, and it is not allowed to move boats to ferry people. One day in 1938, a group of soldiers (who should belong to the Kuomintang) went downstream and put all their private boats down to fugu. If they could not get on the boat, they lost it. The river and road life will be cut off. After the liberation, due to the poor road transportation, we encouraged the use of water. Since 1950, the government has been lending money to experienced people along the Yellow River to run boats. A boat costs more than 500 yuan, and the villagers buy it jointly. There are three share boats, five share boats and five share boats at most. According to the business situation, the loan should be paid off in the second and third year if it is not paid in the first year. The fleet is like today's transportation companies, where there is work, where there is work, the boatman only earns freight. At that time, due to inconvenient transportation, poor circulation, and lack of food supply in drought years, the fleet was put to use. From Ningxia, Shanba, Dengkou and other places to Baotou. The top goes to Ningxia and the bottom to fugu. That's the run. Going up, they also brought coal, white mud, grindstone, porcelain and other goods from the local area in exchange for the food and specialty there. If you go up there and have a job there, you can leave it to work. At that time, when the "Sanshenggong bridge" was built in Haibowan, we were responsible for carrying sand there. About 60 miles of waterway, we ran back and forth for two years. When you go back, if there is no cargo on board, you will transport stones from Baotou to tuoxian. When we get to Lama Bay, we keep putting coal from Hexi to Hedong.
every year when the river opens, it's time for us to start; when the ice comes, we'll go home. In 1955, the Yellow River Transport Bureau was established to manage private ships. Communication and coordination with foreign countries to protect the interests of boatman. In 1957, our fleet also set up a society. There were 70 ships in the county, and about 400 people formed three societies: the victory society, the advance society, and the progress society. Up to tuoxian county and down to xiachengwan, he road workers participated in the construction of the society. The society had a director, an accountant, and unified command and accounting.
at that time, the river road workers were very hard, but the income was OK. One year's income can be more than 500 yuan, and then up to 700 yuan, 800 yuan. At that time, money was valuable and could bear to spend. A month to 55 Jin of fine grain (white flour, rice), not enough to eat, along the way secretly buy some supplement.
from 1950 to 1970, we have been running on the river road for more than 20 years. Since then, traffic has developed, and there has been less work on rivers and roads. When local construction is launched on a large scale, we will also participate in local construction. In 1970, when xiachengwan 702 bridge was built, we built a floating bridge there for construction. The bridge is a concrete open spandrel double curvature arch bridge with a span of 50 meters and a length of 342.52 meters. It is the first permanent bridge across the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia. In 1975, Xiata traffic cement plant was built. We took part in the construction. We flattened a mountain and built the plant. We River workers have made great contributions to transportation and local construction in recent years. After that, he was assigned to work in cement plant, fertilizer plant and power plant. After that, retirement and pension will be arranged. It is also the Communist Party's affirmation of our contribution. When talking about the life along the river, Tian zhanchang and Tian changsuo are in the mood. They say that they have really suffered a lot. What they have done is not as good as cattle and horses. But it's also a pleasure in pain.
at the beginning of each year, the river workers go to the river to offer incense, offer paper, and pray, hoping for a year of peace and security. It's like a wish when the service is finished. After a year's operation, we have to repair our own ships. Cutting wood and breaking board is not all right. Elm and willow are the most practical. Here and there, mending is also technical work. If we can't do it well, there will be danger on the way, so we should hire the best craftsmen. All aspects of the settlement is appropriate, six people make up a boat, not to leave home. For a long time, when I was homesick, I wrote a short letter to settle down.
the boatman's life was accompanied by songs sooner or later, more or less. ——With songs to say things, with songs to complain, with songs to encourage, with songs to amuse, songs have become indispensable spiritual food for boatman. This unique form and content became the witness of boatman's blood and tears life, and also became the seasoning of collective optimism. At this time, the boatman became a singer and poet in the world. Over the past few years, they have been able to edit many lyrics and sing many songs. The style and priority of the songs vary from place to place, and the content is different, but they are concise, vivid and lyrical.
  when I want to leave, I sing:
"it's a day on the road in April and July, but it's a pity in September. Hold up the mast and let the boat go. Who's going to guard my little sister?
pick up the fork sleeve and shake the rope (fork sleeve: the sleeve at the end of the rope). I don't know what to say before I leave? When you warn each other, sing:
if you don't leave, you should be careful. Pick up the pole and push a few. When the boat arrives at the river, the wind blows and the waves wave. It's vital to keep up with it. Pull open the canopy, it's windy, and you have to worry about going up and down.

when singing these songs, most of the boatmen are in the work, they echo back and forth, or work together to complete the task of eliminating danger. It's a big difference from an actor concentrating on singing. According to today's imagination, the best way is to travel downstream, saving time and effort, and sometimes appreciating the elegance of poet Li Bai. The old man said, No. When we start, we should also look at the Yellow River, where the water is large and the water is small, and the water is fast and the water is slow. If the water is too small, the ship is easy to run aground; if the water is too large, it is difficult to control and life is in danger. But now that I'm on board, there's no turning back. Who knows when it's going to rain heavily, I have to go to the end. When you swim down to Fugu to transport goods, there is Shijian below Xiacheng Bay. If you want to jump over these stone streams, you have to be steered by very experienced sailors. Even so, there will be accidents from time to time. The light ones will destroy the ship and sink, and the heavy ones will empty the ship. Tian Kuan and he Hou, two boatmen in the village, never came back because of the distress of the river road. Boatman often go up. The large ships full of goods formed a large fleet and sailed against the current. A large ship carries about 60000 Jin. From Shipan and other places to Lamawan, there is a section of Shihe Road, which is the most difficult. Many people have great power. Boatman on 30 as a group, divided into the boat and boatman, division of labor, pull up the ship one by one. Such a difficult road can only be pushed forward two or three li every day. This section of the river road is the most difficult and tragic. At this time, they used the encouraging boatman's chant to make the person carrying the boat and the boatman move in line, and slowly drag the boat forward. When tired, I still use humorous lyrics to make a joke. In fact, hard work is just a normal work; when there is backwater or floating water, the manpower is often too much, and then there will be danger. If the action is slow and the rope cannot be released, it will be pulled a little. When you get to the upper reaches of Lama Bay, the terrain is flat and the current is slow, so you can sail more than 20 miles a day. The river workers eat on the boat, set up tents and live on the boat. They walk and stop, stop and walk. In case of heavy rain, they have to be hungry. When the rain is over, they can make a fire to cook. It's really like what they say in their libretto: "pull on the big boat and walk for a long time. The hard days will come later. Pull on the boat and go to the ghost road every day. When will you leave a river running road?" "The stern of the ship is swaying. It's not on the waves one day."
due to the implementation of the grain supply system at that time, although the boatman carried grain, he could not eat it. Only along the way secretly take money to buy, can't buy, can only starve. The government's policy towards them is that the village will not be given any ration land, and there is no other special care and treatment. The boatman's harvest is a few hundred yuan a year in exchange for his life and sweat.
three     the past is like smoke
with the economic development, there are gradually cars, because of efficiency and safety and other factors, the shipping industry here has gradually withdrawn from the historical stage; heluhanhe boatman number has also become a historical memory, a story of happy life, and an educational topic for future generations. However, we will never forget the efforts and contributions made by the people who lived along the river in the economic and social conditions at that time, from small to small, from large to large, for the society and the country. Their old faces and deep wrinkles have made the most profound notes on these past events. How much joy and pride do you have when you listen to the Yellow River Boatman's song: "you know how many bends there are in the Yellow River, how many boats there are, how many poles there are on the boats, and how many boatmen have brought the boats here. I know that there are ninety-nine bends in the Yellow River Ninety nine boats, ninety-nine poles, ninety-nine boatmen, take the boat