Interpretation of topography and geomorphology

2021年03月18日 12:56:17

Geomorphological features

Location Qingshui River Old Cow Bay Geopark is located in Qingshuihe County, Hohhot City, Inner Mongolia. Qingshuihe County is located in the middle of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the southernmost tip of Hohhot City.

Landscape Qingshuihe County presents a wave-like undulating low hilly terrain. The rock is flat, the loess cover is thick, the terrain is gradually lower from southeast to west, the average altitude is 1373.6 meters;

Mountain system Qingshuihe County, the mountain area of 733 square kilometers, accounting for 26% of the county area. The county's total terrain is high in the southeast and low in the northwest. At an average altitude of 1373.6 meters, the main peak of monkey head mountain in the southeast is the highest point in the country, at an altitude of 1806 meters. The lowest point is the village of Lao Niu wan on the Yellow River, at an altitude of 921 meters, a relatively high difference of 911 meters. The territory with the most hills, beach and river very few, the entire terrain between mountains, rivers, ditches, mostly wave-shaped mountains, most of the veins and Yinshan, mountains, winding ups and downs, more well-known Panshan, Yuping Mountain, Eight Children Mountain, Silver Rolling Mountain, Firestone Mountain and other more than 10 mountains. There are often deep ditches interspersed between the mountains, the main valleys are Yangjiachuan ditch, Beibaochuan ditch, papaya ditch, Daxi ditch, Tailiang zigou, etc. ;

Climate characteristics

Qingshuihe County is located in the mid-temperate zone, is a typical temperate continental monsoon climate, four distinct seasons. Cold and snowy in winter, warm, dry and windy sand in spring, hot and concentrated rainfall in summer due to oceanic monsoons, and cool and short autumn. The temperature is poor and large, the light is abundant and the heat is abundant. The main features are short winter and summer, cold and dry, wind and rain less, the average annual temperature of 7.5degrees Celsius, the average temperature in January -11.5degrees C, the extreme minimum temperature of -29degrees Celsius, the average temperature in July 22.5degrees C, the extreme maximum temperature of 37.1degrees Celsius. The average daily temperature is 198 days, the average daily temperature is 232 days above 0degrees Celsius, the average annual sunshine is 2900 hours, and the average frost-free period is about 136 days. The average annual rainfall is 410mmand the annual evaporation is 2577.2mm.

Hydrology and water resources


The total groundwater reserves in Qingshuihe County are 168 million cubic meters, of which 24.52 million cubic meters are dynamic reserves, 105 million cubic meters are recoverable, and 102 million cubic meters are atmospheric immersion recharges. Depending on the terrain, buried conditions and type of water storage, it can be divided into 5 types of pore diving, pore crack water, upper hysteresis water, fissure water and vein-like fissure and karst fissure water.


The average annual surface water runoff in Qingshuihe County is 33.494 million cubic meters, of which the amount of passenger water flowing in from the outer county is 20.52 million cubic meters, the county's own water production is 13.442 million cubic meters, and the average land surface evaporation over the years is 83.81 million cubic meters.

There are ditch valleys in the county, mainly distributed in Lamawan, Wang Gui kiln, Wuliangtai, Yangjia kiln, basin Qing and other places, about 38. There are 4 major rivers in the Yellow River, Hun River, Qingshui River and Gul Semi-River, with a total length of 108.5 km. In addition, there are two large seasonal rivers Yangjiachuan and Backburg River. Among them, the Yellow River flows through the territory of 65 kilometers, the river surface width of 200-300 meters, catchment area of 93005 hectares, land 50-100 meters, river ratio of 2.28,catchment area of 27253 hectares, the average flow rate of 8.28 cubic meters / second; 671 square kilometers, 7.71square kilometers, 30-50 meters wide, the average annual flow rate of 0.84 cubic meters per second; The multi-year average flow rate is 0.2 cubic meters per second;


The distribution of spring water in the county is wide, with the Yellow River along the and northeast Jiyan to delete the spring water more, the water volume is larger. In the old cow bay fault zone in the southwestern part of the county, the water flow of single spring amounted to 400-1200 cubic meters / day, and the total amount of water in the spring group reached 1199.22 cubic meters / day. In the granite area of the north-east of the county, the spring surge water volume is generally 10-60 cubic meters / day, ma ridge beam Shandong ditch spring, the surge water volume can reach 768 cubic meters / day. The vast plateau ditch valley area, mostly surface stagnant water discharge spring, distribution is rare, the surge water volume is very small, generally 0.1-6 cubic meters / day, the amount of water varies with the season, water supply is not guaranteed.

Vegetation, soil characteristics

Nowadays, the water and the territory are distributed from southeast to northwest due to the influence of hydrothermal conditions and topography, and the artificial irrigation jungle grassland vegetation transitions from meadow grassland to hills and sand. At the same time, under the influence of non-zone environmental conditions, there are low-temperature grassland vegetation and derived vegetation. It can be divided into four types: mountain meadow grassland vegetation, hilly arid grassland vegetation, sand dune grassland vegetation, and low-temperature meadow grassland vegetation.

The soil in Qingshuihe County is divided into 8 soils,such as chestnut calcium soil, chestnut brown soil, gray-brown soil, tide soil, wind sand soil, marsh soil, salt soil, stone soil, etc., 11 sub-classes,33 natives,113 soil species.