1. Earth rocks
A. magmatic rocks
also known as "igneous rocks". Under the influence of some geological structures, the molten magma from the deep crust or mantle intrudes into the crust or rises to the surface and condenses into rocks: those that begin to condense at a considerable depth from the surface are called "plutonic rocks", such as peridotite, pyroxene, granite, etc.; those that erupt from the surface or condense near the surface are called "extrusive rocks", such as basalt, rhyolite, etc; Between plutonic rocks and extrusive rocks are "hypabyssal rocks", such as granite and syenite porphyry.
granite is the most widely distributed plutonic intrusive rock. The main mineral components are quartz, feldspar and biotite, with light color, gray white and flesh red are the most common, with isogranular and massive structure. Granite is not only beautiful, but also has high compressive strength. It is a kind of high-quality building material peridotite intrusive rock. The main mineral composition is olivine and pyroxene, dark green or greenish black, large specific, granular structure. Nickel, diamond, asbestos, siderite and talc are also related to these rocks.
basalt is one of the most widely distributed extrusive rocks. The mineral composition is mainly plagioclase and pyroxene, black or gray black, with pore structure and almond structure. Basalt itself can be used as excellent wear-resistant raw material for casting stone. Sedimentary rock is also called "hydrogenetic rock". It is the destruction product of weathering under normal temperature and pressure, or the product of biological and volcanic action. After a long time of sunshine, rain, wind and wave, it will gradually break into gravel or soil. Under the action of wind, water, glaciers, waves and other external forces, these broken materials are transported to lakes, oceans and other low-lying areas to accumulate or deposit, forming sediments. With the passage of time, the sediment becomes thicker and thicker, and the pressure becomes greater and greater. As a result, the void gradually shrinks, and the water is gradually discharged. Coupled with the cementation of soluble matter, the sediment slowly consolidates into rock, which is sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are widely distributed, accounting for 75% of the land area, and are the main rocks forming the crust surface.
rock cemented by sand grains with a diameter of 0.1-2 mm. It is widely distributed, mainly composed of quartz and feldspar, and its color is usually white, gray, light red and yellow.
a rock formed by compaction and cementation of various clays. It is one of the most widely distributed sedimentary rocks with obvious bedding and can be split into thin sections with various colors, such as black, red, gray, yellow, etc. Limestone, commonly known as "Qingshi", is a kind of gray or gray white sedimentary rock formed in the sea and lake basin. It is mainly composed of calcite particles, which will react with dilute hydrochloric acid and give off bubbles. The color of limestone is mostly white, gray and black gray, which is dense and massive. Metamorphic rock:
igneous rock or sedimentary rock in the crust, due to the changes of physical and chemical conditions caused by crustal movement and magmatic activity, a series of changes have taken place in its composition, structure and structure, which is called metamorphism. New rocks formed by metamorphism are called metamorphic rocks, such as quartzite metamorphosed from quartz sandstone, slate metamorphosed from shale, marble metamorphosed from limestone and dolomite. Metamorphic rocks often have schistosity structures. &Marble: formed by recrystallization and metamorphism of limestone or dolomite. Particle ratio: Limestone coarse, mineral composition is mainly calcite, acid violent reaction, generally white, such as containing different impurities, there are a variety of different colors. Marble is not hard and easy to carve. It is very beautiful after polishing. It is often used as decoration and building stone.
Slate: metamorphosed from shale and clay. The mineral composition can only be seen under the microscope. When knocking, it makes a clear sound and has obvious plate structure. The surface of the board is slightly glossy, with a variety of colors, including gray, black, gray green, purple, red, etc. it can be used as roof tile and writing slate.
gneiss: mostly metamorphosed from magmatic rocks. The main mineral components are quartz, feldspar, biotite and amphibole. The mineral grains are black-and-white and arranged in continuous strips, forming gneissic structure. The lithology is hard, but it is easy to be weathered and broken. Mineral resources of the earth
all the natural mineral resources buried underground or distributed on the surface (including surface water) for human exploitation are widely known as mineral resources.
A. metal mineral refers to the mineral from which metal elements are extracted by smelting.
1) iron and steel basic raw material metal mineral, such as iron, manganese, chromium;
2) non ferrous metal mineral, such as copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, gold, silver;
3) rare metal mineral, such as lithium, rubidium, beryllium;
4) dispersed element mineral, such as germanium, selenium;
5) radioactive element mineral, such as uranium, radium.
B. non metallic minerals refer to the minerals that can be directly applied or produced with non-metallic raw materials after simple processing.
1) metallurgical auxiliary raw material minerals, such as magnesite, refractory clay, silica, etc.; 2) special non-metallic minerals, such as diamond, crystal, asbestos, mica, etc.; 3) chemical raw material non-metallic minerals, such as phosphorus, sulfur, sodium salt, natural alkali, etc.; 4) building materials non-metallic minerals.
C. fuel mineral refers to mineral resources that can be burned to generate power and heat.
such as coal, oil shale, oil, natural gas, etc. (the difference between rock and mineral) rock is a solid composed of one or more minerals, but it does not have the basic characteristics of minerals. The difference between rocks and minerals is like the difference between airplane models and the materials that make them. Just as rocks are made up of minerals, aircraft models are made up of tires, wings, engines and other components. The basic characteristic of rocks is that all rocks are mixtures. Coal, oil and natural gas are combustible organic rocks, not minerals. (how minerals are formed) one way to form minerals is through magmatic activity. There are various elements of the earth in the magma. These elements, under the condition of high temperature melting of magma, undergo chemical changes and form a variety of compounds and some simple substances. Because the chemical composition of magma is not the same everywhere underground, and because the temperature, pressure and other conditions are changing when the magma cools, and a certain environment is only suitable for the formation of certain minerals, there are many kinds of minerals formed by the cooling of magma. Another way is to make the formed minerals undergo chemical changes through the action of water, atmosphere and sometimes organisms, or make the elements or compounds dissolved in water interact with each other and precipitate and accumulate, resulting in various secondary minerals. For example, kaolinite is formed by the interaction of feldspar and mica with water and weathering.
(mineral appearance characteristics and physical properties) all kinds of minerals have certain appearance characteristics and physical properties, which can be used as the basis for identifying minerals.
(shape of minerals) the shapes of minerals are various. Some minerals can form regular crystals, such as salt is cube, crystal is hexahedron, mica is hexagonal flake. Some minerals are irregular grape like, granular, fibrous, radial and so on. Most of the minerals we often see are irregular massive. (color of minerals) minerals have various colors. Some minerals are named according to their colors. For example, biotite is black, hematite is brownish red, and chalcopyrite is yellow. Some minerals are colorless, such as crystal.
(cleavage and fracture of minerals) some minerals are often cracked along a certain direction to form a smooth plane after being knocked. This property is called cleavage. For example, calcite is cracked in three directions after being stressed to form rhombohedral small pieces with smooth surface; mica can be peeled into a leaf sheet in a certain direction. Other minerals without cleavage often form fracture surfaces of various shapes after being knocked, which are called fracture surfaces. For example, quartz often has shell fracture surfaces.
(hardness of minerals) the degree of hardness of minerals is called hardness. Generally, two different minerals are used to describe each other to compare the relative hardness of minerals. In 1812, Friedrich moss, a German mineralogist, formed ten grades of common minerals (from the softest to the hardest)